Hyperpigmentation is a medical term used to described visibly darkened skin patches. This is caused from over activity of the melanocytes.
In most cases it is completely avoidable and can be effectively treated. Hyperpigmentation can be in the form of freckles, solar lentigo (age spots), melasma or post-inflammatory pigmentation.
Melasma is hormonal related and chronic, the symptoms for this can only be managed and not cured.